当前位置:千亿国际娱乐官网 > 科研成果 > 正文内容

【教学研究】高三英语个性化书面表达的教学策略

  • 发布人:千亿国际娱乐官网 点击数:645 发布时间:2016-10-15 06:43:19 文章来源:

高三英语个性化书面表达的教学策略

                                         

 

摘要:针对高三学生英语书面表达语言平淡内容同质化的现状,本文建议在高三写作教学中教师应改进教学策略,引导学生在书面表达中体现自己鲜明的个性。

关键词:高三英语 个性化书面表达 教学策略


一、问题的提出

201310月在我校召开的台州市高考复习研讨会上,一位参加2013年浙江省高考英语阅卷的教师感慨说:高考书面表达题是One thing I’m proud of,很多考生或写车上让座,或写雨中送伞,或写考试失败绝不放弃,虽然文章条理清晰,要点齐全,但是最后得分依然很低。主要原因是这些作文语言平淡内容大同小异,阅卷教师读后认为文章缺乏个性,难以让人为之怦然心动,最后给分自然也就十分吝啬了。

作为一名高三英语教师,笔者听后也有同感。在平时学校组织的月考或全市统一举行的检测中,学生英语作文普遍存在这种语言无亮点内容同质化的现象。

 

二、高三学生英语书面表达缺乏个性原因探究

高三学生书面表达为什么会千人一面呢?笔者以为有以下原因:

(一)学生层面

很多学生平时不注重积累语言素材和拓展写作思维而总想投机取巧,热衷于背诵所谓的作文模板;到考试时又不懂得灵活运用,只知道生搬硬套东拼西凑。这些文章明显带有死记硬背的痕迹,缺乏作者的个性化表达,将作者写作能力低思维浅而窄的弱点暴露无遗。

(二)教师层面

据笔者观察,部分高三教师不太重视书面表达,总认为写作教学耗时费力,而且成效不彰。有些教师虽然也认为写作重要,但在策略指导方面浮于表面,针对性不强。

 

三、高三英语个性化书面表达的教学策略

笔者以为,所谓个性化书面表达其实是指作文应具有以下这些特征:

(一)句式多变

作者可以使用简单句,但必要时应使用高级句型,并且做到长短句结合,句式丰富多彩。

(二)内容新颖

在不偏离主题的前提下,文章内容应尽量做到新颖独特,要言人之所未言,不人云亦云。

(三)思想深刻

文章表达的主题应有一定的思想深度,读后能发人深省,予人启迪。

由于英语高考作文大多数只有100-120字的篇幅,因此高三学生要在方寸之间展现自己的个性,让自己的作文从众多文章中脱颖而出并不容易。为实现上述要求,笔者认为可以指导学生采取以下策略:

  1.在细节拓展时张扬想象丰富之个性

从近年来全国各省市英语高考试卷中我们不难发现:开放或半开放性作文试题受到命题者的青睐。原因在于这类作文中的中文提示没有提纲作文那么多,而只是给考生提供了一些写作要点。如果要达到试题要求,考生必须对要点进行适当的拓展,主要手段就是在文章中增加细节描写。如2009全国卷I英语作文:

假定你是李华,正在英国接受英语培训,住在一户英国人家里。今天你的房东Mrs. Wilson不在家,你准备外出,请给Mrs. Wilson 写一留言条,内容包括:

    1.外出购物2.替房东还书3Tracy 来电话留言:1)咖啡屋(Bolton Coffee)见面取消2)此事已告知Susan3) 尽快回电

注意:1. 词数100左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。

 

如果考生只是简单地将以上要点译成英语再联句成篇,那么肯定不能完成写作任务,更何况命题者明确指出可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。因此我们可以指导学生作如下拓展:

1)外出购物

 I’m going out shopping.

 拓展:I’m going out shopping, and won’t be back until about 5:00 pm.  

2)替房东还书

 I will remember to return the book you borrowed.

 拓展:I will remember to return the book you borrowed from the City Library on my way.

 3)Tracy 来电话留言:

1)咖啡屋(Bolton Coffee)见面取消

 Tracy called, saying that she couldn’t meet you at Bolton Coffee.

    拓展:At about 1 o’clock this afternoon, Tracy called, saying that she couldn’t meet you at Bolton Coffee tomorrow morning as she has something important to deal with.

 2)此事已告知Susan

 She has already told Susan about this change.

 拓展1She has already told Susan about this change and she felt sorry about it.

 拓展2She has already told Susan about this change so you needn’t worry about Susan.

 3) 尽快回电

 She wanted you to call her back as soon as possible.

 拓展1She wanted you to call her back as soon as possible so that you could set some other time for the meeting.

        拓展2She wanted you to call her back as soon as possible so that she could tell you about the change in detail.

通过以上练习学生可以发现:细节拓展始终围绕文章主题,行文简洁明了,不做过度延伸。但如果缺少细节拓展部分书面表达就显得内容单薄,上下文跳跃性过大。而在笔者看来,细节拓展部分是试题中没有提及而需要作者通过合理想象才能完成,这就为学生提供了一个展示自我张扬个性的绝佳空间。

2.在衔接过渡处彰显语篇流畅之个性

一提到文章衔接很多师生立刻想到以下过渡词语:

时间关系:first, then, suddenly, immediately, meanwhile, after that, at once, soon, at the same time, when, as soon as, before, the moment, while, etc.

转折关系:but, however, yet, on the contrary, all too often, in fact, virtually, instead, on the other hand, nevertheless, despite, in spite of, otherwise, though, while, as, etc.

因果关系:due to, owing to, thanks to, because of, as a result of, on account of, so, therefore, in consequence, thus, because, since, etc.

   递进关系:and, moreover, besides, furthermore, what’s more, in addition, apart from, worse still, what’s worse, to make matters worse, more importantly, etc.

总结:to conclude, in a word, in general, altogether, in short, on the whole, etc.

然而正是由于平时教师过分强调这些连接词,很多学生就在自己的作文中大量使用,结果写出来的文章大同小异,了无新意。事实上如果我们细心研究一下近年来各地高考英语作文范文我们就会发现,与这些相对固定的连接词相比,一些起着衔接作用的过渡句更加体现作者的写作水平。如2012年福建卷英语作文范文:

Mind Your Behavior in Public palaces

Last Sunday, I went sightseeing with my friends in the Fairy Lake  Park. The park was full of freshness and beauty of spring with the sun shining and birds singing. When I was enjoying the fantastic scenery around, something unpleasant caught my eye. A young couple in a boat were eating, talking and laughing loudly as if they were the only people in the world. What's worse, they spat and even threw rubbish into the lake, totally ignoring the noticeable sign "No Littering" nearby. What a shame!

 Such behavior left me deep in thought. If all visitors to the Fairy Lake  Park do as the couple did, the lake will be severely polluted and soon turned into a huge dustbin. I think all of us should mind our behavior in public places. Only in this way can we live in more comfortable and beautiful surroundings.

文中划线部分就是过渡句。在教学中笔者要求学生将这两句从原文中划掉再读原文,他们立刻体会到过渡句的重要性,若没有它们承上启下,文章就不再流畅。但与此同时同学们也意识到:这样的过渡句需要作者根据文章主题要求随机应变才能写就,靠死记硬背固定句型无法解决问题。对学生而言这既是挑战又是机遇,因为他们可以在这一部分开动脑筋,通过添加一些有差异的过渡性语句来彰显自己的个性。

台州市一位名师在教学中这样对学生进行添加过渡性语句的训练:将高考英语作文范文中过渡性语句去掉然后要求学生重新填写。对于2012年福建卷英语作文范文划线部分的第一句她的学生如此写道:

Last Sunday, I went sightseeing with my friends in the Fairy Lake ParkWe were enjoying the beauty of the lake when we saw something unpleasant.

也有同学这样表达:

Last Sunday, I went sightseeing with my friends in the Fairy Lake Park. Everything in the park kept me spellbound, the soft breeze, the flowers and the flying birds. Compared with the beautiful sight, two people’s behavior was terrible.

还有同学用下面两句代替范文中的第二句:

The impolite behavior strikes a nerve with me. A person’s behavior reflects his characters.

Words failed me to describe my shock. They polluted the environment and left us a bad impression.

这些过渡性语句独树一帜,让人过目难忘。

3.在语言表达上显示功底深厚之个性

  在一次期中考试后笔者将高一英语作文试题布置给高三学生作为课外作业,结果发现很多高三学生写出的文章与高一学生相比并无显著差异。换言之经过三年学习这些学生的书面表达水平没有得到实质性提高,主要表现在他们的作文词汇贫乏及语言结构形式单一。同一词汇重复出现及文章全部采用简单句等现象最为常见。实际上近年来高考对学生的语言表达能力要求越来越高,运用高级词汇及复杂语言结构已成为高考范文最典型的特征之一。如2013湖北卷书面表达题:

请根据以下提示,并结合事例,用英语写一篇短文。

  We all know that “Sticks and stones may break our bones”, but we should also be aware that words can hurt people, too.

参考范文如下:

My classmate admires my fluent English very much and I usually feel encouraged by his compliments.

One day, when we learned the new word “eccentric” in class , we were asked to make a sentence with it. I volunteered to do it by saying “My deskmate is an eccentric boy whose clothes never fit him . ” Hearing this ,the whole class burst into laughter and my deskmate’s face turned red. After class, I learned from the teacher that my deskmate would have dropped out of school if he hadn’t been helped by others. My mindless words must have hurt him deeply.

  Not until then did I realize words could be powerful in both positive and negative. We should avoid hurting others if we can’t always be encouraging when we speak.

如文中划线部分所示,短短100多字的文章包含了时间状语从句、定语从句、非谓语动词、虚拟语气以及倒装句。如果要求学生达到这样高的语言水平,教师就必须在平时的写作训练中培养学生语言意识,指导他们在自己的作文中尝试运用高级词汇或复杂句型。我们可以采取以下方法帮助学生达到写作要求:

1)词语转换

用高级词汇代替一般用语。例如:

(1) Suddenly I had a good idea. →

All of a sudden a good idea occurred to me.

(2) English is playing a more and more important part in modern society. →

English is playing an increasingly important part in modern society.

2)句型升级

用复杂结构代替一般句型。例如:

(1)When he heard the news, he jumped with joy. →

Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.(现在分词)

(2) The house is beautiful. We live in the house.→

The house in which we live is beautiful.(定语从句)

(3) Because there were no buses, we had to walk home. →

There being no buses, we had to walk home.(独立主格结构)

(4) The villagers didn’t realize the importance of protecting environment until all the fish in the river died out. →

It was not until all the fish in the river died out that the villagers realized the importance of protecting environment.(强调句型)

(5A tall tower stands in front of the building. →

In front of the building stands a tall tower.(倒装句)

3)一句多译

用这种方式拓展学生思维,丰富他们的语言句式。例如:

Great changes have taken place in my hometown in the past few years. →

    My hometown has changed a lot in the past few years.

    My hometown is no longer what it was a few years ago.

    Having changed a lot, my hometown is beyond recognition.

    My hometown is quite different from what it used to be.

    The past few years have witnessed great changes in my hometown.

    My hometown has experienced/undergone dramatic changes in the past few years.

4.在语篇总结中凸显寓意深刻之个性

研究近年各地高考试题,笔者发现很多省份英语作文总结部分都要求学生写出自己的感想、评论或启示。笔者认为作文试题中这一部分最为开放,它为考生提供了一个充分展示自己写作才华的自由空间。在语篇总结部分优秀考生可以将自己独特的思维品质展现在阅卷者面前,写出寓意深刻的佳作来。不过颇为遗憾的是,大多数考生在这一环节表现得不尽如人意:或归纳不出紧扣主题的个人观点,写出的文章思路零乱不知所云;或有独到见解缺表达不清,结果前功尽弃。

若要解决此类难题,笔者认为教师在平时写作训练中应指导学生积累相关语言素材。坦率地说要让学生在高考书面表达原创一些饱含哲理的名言警句类的语句来表达思想是非常困难的,但我们完全可以要求学生在平时阅读中积累类似的语句或语段,然后在高考中加以创造性地使用。实际操作时我们可以指导学生建立自己的素材库,将各种表示感悟或观点的语句储存起来,以便写作时随时调用。获取素材的渠道如下:

1)现行教材

浙江省普通高中大多采用人教社NSEFC教材,教材中可供学生借鉴模仿来总结观点或发表感想的语言素材非常丰富。以下仅以模块4为例:

(1) Further reading made me realize that it was hard work and determination as well as her gentle nature that got her into medical school. What made her succeed later on was the kindness and consideration she showed to all her patients.M4 U1

(2) As Victor Hugo once said, "Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face."(M4 U3)

(3) He is loved and remembered as a great actor who could inspire people with great confidence. (M4 U3)

(4) With all these attractions, no wonder tourism is increasing wherever there is a Disneyland. If you want to have fun and more than fun, come to Disneyland! (M4 U5)

2)课外读物

由于互联网和现代出版业的发达,教师还可以指导学生从网络上或市面上流行的英语读物中积累语言素材。下面这些语句都是笔者从《大学英语4级经典美文150篇》中节选的,

(1) When you make a mistake the last thing you want to do is run away from it.

(2) Don’t forget God always keeps an alternative door open for every one. While the front door is closed, there must be another open for you .

(3) Hope is always available to us. When we feel defeated, we need only take a deep breath and say“Yes”and hope will reappear.

(4) Understand that failure isn’t the opposite of success. Failure is an essential part of success.

3)高考试题

高考试题中也有很多描述个人感想或评论的绝妙素材,教师在评讲这些试题时可以指导学生收集整理。下面这些语段出现在2013年高考试题中:

(1) My wheelchair experiment was soon   54   . It made a deep impression on me. A few hours of “disability” gave me only a taste of the   55   , both physical and mental, that disabled people must overcome. (2013新课标全国卷I,完形填空)

(2) Maybe I gave David something. But I also learned that onewithout any wordscan reach out to another person. All it takes is a hug, a shoulder to cry on, a friendly touch, and an ear that listens. (2013广东卷,阅读理解C)

(3) She said it was a family heirloom (传家宝), but to me it is a treasured symbol of appreciation and pride that cannot be matched with things. (2013湖南卷,阅读理解B)

4)经典谚语

谚语作为文章结语具有高度概括性,若运用得当会为文章增色不少。如2013年浙江省英语书面表达范文总结部分:

I am really proud of this experience, because it helps me realise that we all can fulfil our potential and achieve our goals through hard work. It also helps me better understand the proverb "Practice makes perfect."

    可用做文章结语的谚语很多,本文仅举以下几例:

        (1) Knowledge is power.知识就是力量。   

(2) Confidence in yourself is the first step on the road to success. 自信是走向成功的第一步。
    (3) Honesty is the best policy.做人诚信为本。
    (4) Time and tide wait for no man.时不我待。
    (5) Genius is nothing but labor and diligence.天才不过是勤奋而已。
    (6) God helps those who help themselves.自助者天助之。
    (7) Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.世上无难事,只怕有心人。

(8)Actions speak louder than words.事实胜于雄辩。

通过素材积累和语段仿写学生完全可以根据高考英语作文试题要求写出类似的言简意赅的总结句或评论句,这样既可以表达思想又能凸显个性,同时这些语句或语段在文章中能起到画龙点睛升华主题的作用。但需要强调的是,对于这些素材教师应鼓励学生创造性地运用,而不能简单地照抄照搬,否则在作文中彰显个性的愿望又将落空。

 

四、结束语

《普通高中英语课程标准》(实验)(教育部,2003明确提出,高中阶段的英语课程应有利于学生个性和潜能的发展。因此在高三英语写作教学中倡导个性化书面表达既是高考的现实需要也是对新课程理念的呼应。作为高三英语教师应积极改进教学策略,引导学生写出主题突出个性鲜明的佳作来!

 

 

参考文献:

    华研外语四六级研究中心.2013. 《大学英语4级经典美文150篇》 [M]. 北京:世图电子音像出版社.

教育部.2003. 普通高中英语课程标准(实验)  [M]. 北京:人民教育出版社.

人教社.2007. 普通高中课程标准实验教科书英语·4(必修模块)[T. 北京:人民教育出版社.

天星教育研究中心、天星教育网.200920122013.200920122013年全国各省市高考试题汇编》[M]. 乌鲁木齐:新疆青少年出版社.



千亿国际娱乐官网版权所有 | 后台管理
网站备案号:浙ICP备09084464号-1
(建议您将电脑显示屏的分辨率调整为1024*768浏览本网站)